Tuesday, August 19

GREENHOUSE EFFECT TO CLIMATE CHANGE

SOME MILESTONE PROGRESS


In 1820, Frenchman Fourier has described Greenhouse effect for the first time as, "THE ATMOSPHERE acts like a hot house, because it lets through the lights rays of the sun but remains the dark from the ground."


In 1861, Greenhouse gases, water-vapor and carbon-dioxide, were first recognized by Tyndall in England who measured the absorption of heat radiation by water-vapor and carbon-dioxide.


In 1896, Swede Arrhenius tried to correlate change in surface temperature of the Earth with changes in atmosphere CO2 to explain the occurrence of ice age.


In 1903, Arrhenius noted that industry might put out enough CO2 to actually warm the Earth.


In 1938, Englishman Callendar published a paper on the artificial production of CO2 and its influence on climate where he tried to explain the temperature increases that were occurring at the time.


In 1940, Temperature trend has changed, the northern hemisphere started to cool and so Callander's work was no longer immediately relevant.


In 1955, Concerns for scientific community begun. The Hungarian-American von Neuman in a popular article posed the question "Can we survive technology?"in context of climate change.


In 1959The American scientist Plass purposed the Carbon-dioxide Theory of Climate Change.


Mid-1960s, political level discussion started.


In 1970s, the tone changed and global cooling issues arises focusing on aerosol emissions from industry and CFCs and its potential to destroy the layer of the stratospheric ozone were identified.


In 1974, Manabe presents first computer models of climate change which altered many scientists to the fact that human activities could also affect climate on a global scale.


In 1979, First World Climate Conference in Geneva, Climate Warming once again came into focus.


In 1980, Expert meeting in Villach, Austria; UNEP/WMO/ICSU remarked that CO2 induced climate change indeed was a major issue.


In 1983, Us Environment Protection agency (EPA) concluded that only a ban on coal-use, instituted before 2000, would effectively slow down the rate of global temperature changed and delay at 2°C increases until 2055.


In 1985, International Scientific Community meets at Villach in Austria. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) had commissioned a review, resulting in the report 'The Greenhouse Effect, Climate Change and Ecosystems", which clearly establish increases in GHGs as an international problem.


In 1987, further scientific meeting along with accompanying press coverage gave the issue world-wide attention as discovery of OZONE HOLE over Antarctica and international agreements to limit emissions of CFCs.


In 1988, Toronto Conference on Changing Atmosphere, it started formulating political goals, resulted in a call for a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by approximately 20 percent of 1988 levels by the year 2005, as an initial global goal. Nothing more than a call.


In 1988, Establishment of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) under auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).


In 1990, the IPCC adopted its first assessment report on 30 August 1990 in Sundsvall, Sweden..
In 1992 IPCC Supplementary Reports.
In 1994 IPCC Special Report.
In 1992 Adoption of the UNFCCC.
In 1994 Entry into force of the UNFCCC.
In 1995 COP-1 and every year Conferences of the Parties (COP) meeting will take place in different places.
In 1995 Second IPCC Assessment Report.
In 1997 COP-3, the Berlin Mandate process led to the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol.
In 2001 Third IPCC Assessment Report.
In 2007 Fourth IPCC Assessment Report.
In 2007 December Australia signed KYOTO PROTOCOL.

..........will be edited n updated